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In demonstrating the effects of being excluded from a relatable collective Black identity, the paper argues that horizontal hostility is critical in the project of theorizing mixed-race. Experiences of horizontal hostility represent ificant turning points in mixed-race lives as they can prompt reconsiderations of mixed-race positionings within the broader Black imagined space. Beyond the benefits that horizontal hostility offers to mixed-race studies, it provides insights into conceptualisations of Blackness — as a collective racial identity, community and politics.

The article unpacks how, when and why its boundaries are policed, adding to debates relating to the future formation and maintenance of ethnic group identities and more generally. As a concept, horizontal hostility has been used to describe how divisions and prejudices can emerge within oppressed groups Kennedy ; Lorde Evoking the notion of sibling rivalry between similarly positioned people, horizontal hostility helps al the damage that internal conflicts might cause, by distracting away from the collective resistance work against dominant oppressive forces. The paper contends that horizontal hostility offers a useful analytical frame through which to explore Black mixed-race experiences of disjuncture from Black collective identities — a topic which is seldom dealt with in contemporary theoretical discussions about mixed-race.

Although a great deal of research shows that Black mixed-race subjects tend to be racialized as Black and experience very similar social locations to their Black counterparts Brunsma and Rockquemore ; Song and Aspinall ; Joseph-Salisburymuch less is known about the occasions when Black mixed-race people feel rejected from a collective Black identity.

Mixed-race experiences of rejection can often come about because they are perceived as unable to fit into discrete, monolithic racial and ethnic. However, what is distinctly lacking is an extensive commentary on how the effect of these forms of prejudice may vary depending on who it is that is doing the rejection. Utilizing data from a larger study Campionthis paper aims to expand our understandings of mixed-race experiences by specifically asking how Black mixed-race people negotiate being rejected from a collective Black identity they feel invested in.

Finally, by highlighting some of the issues that Black rejection can throw up for Black mixed-race people — relating to notions of belonging and authenticity — the paper argues for the cultivation of non-essentialist conceptualisations of Black identities to help nurture continued solidarities across heterogenous Black communities.

The paper applies horizontal hostility through an intersectional lens, utilizing gender and social generation as central analytical frameworks. Both emerge as key variables that affect how acutely the experiences of Black rejection are felt. There is a plethora of work that indicates how mixed race and gender intersect Mahtani ; Ali ; Sims and Joseph-Salisbury ; Newman However, given the tendency for samples in mixed-race studies to be skewed Mixed black women sex women, researchers are restrained in their ability to adopt comparative intersectional analyses.

To build a more complicated picture of the differential positionalities of Black mixed-race people, this paper carefully considers how the gender identity of the person experiencing horizontal hostility can have specific effects on how that process takes shape and influence the reactions and responses to it. The Mixed black women sex of mixed-race studies emerged circa onwards Root ; Tizard and Phoenix ; Ifekwunigwe ; Parker and Song ; Olumide ; Aspinall ; Twine By drawing a sample from a wide range of adult age groups who have come of age in the s through to the s and using a life-history approach, the paper hopes to respond to these concerns.

By tracing the unique historical consciousness of the participants, horizontal hostility is shown to be experienced differently within changing structures. This emphasizes the need to analyse the temporality of mixed-race identity which s for how broader social histories are embedded into the personal histories and social identities of mixed-race subjects.

The literature on mixedness in the US context, compared with the UK, appears to have a more developed language for identifying and describing the specific prejudices that mixed-race people experience because of their mixedness. A ificant sub-section of the work produced has appeared in psychology journals, taking influence from psycho-social frameworks that emphasize the negative impact these experiences can have on the identity development, mental health and self-esteem of mixed-race people Townsend et al.

In thinking about Black mixed-race experiences, incidents of Black rejection are seldom discussed in the literature. This is a transnational finding in studies on mixed-race identity Brunsma and Rockquemore ; Khanna ; Song ; Joseph-Salisbury Without seeking to challenge these valid claims to sameness across the Black and Black mixed-race experience in Britain, this paper seeks to complicate existing understandings by dealing with some of the more nuanced conceptualisations of Black identity that are present within diverse Black communities.

One ificant marker of differentiation within Black communities is skin tone. A great body of work has traced how this distinction has historically been enforced upon, rather than willingly chosen and upheld by Black communities themselves Gabriel ; Hunter Within these patriarchal plantation societies, gender complicated how mixed populations accumulated their wealth. Mulatto women were much more likely to be taken as partners and mistresses by Whites than mulatto men Livesay Although these relations were often achieved through violence and coercion, they nevertheless enhanced the chances of elevated societal positions.

Subsequently, after Abolition, mixed women generally occupied a higher status in gender relations with Black men Hall In contemporary racist, heterosexist, patriarchal societies, women of colour continue to be implicated by interlocking systems of oppression that are legacies of these Mixed black women sex histories. In light of this they can, unwillingly, find themselves pitted against other women in competition for male approval.

In a world in which Whiteness is a yardstick for beauty, Black mixed-race women who tend to be lighter skinned are the likely winners of this competition, over their darker skinned Black female counterparts Hunter In contrast, Black mixed-race men, who are more likely to identify as Black and be racialized as such, are less likely to report experiencing gender-specific tensions with their same-sex Black peers Joseph-Salisbury Furthermore, skin shade appears to operate differently within the social schemas of Black male friendship groups, where darker skin can constitute a form of capital Joseph-Salisbury This paper uses data from a study based upon thirty-seven semi-structured interviews with Black mixed-race men and women living in Birmingham, UK Campion The study received ethical approval from the research ethics committee at the University of Manchester.

In light of this, I actively avoided recruiting respondents from groups, forums or online websites that provide services specifically for mixed-race people and their families, to reduce the likelihood of obtaining a biased sample. Informal networks were utilized and recruitment posters were distributed on neighbourhood Facebook s, in Black hairdressers, leisure centres, libraries, community centres and colleges across the city. I did not want to discourage the participation of people who had mixed backgrounds but did not identify themselves as such. A balanced sample by social class was achieved to some degree.

This was a desirable outcome given that samples in mixed-race research tend to comprise of mostly middle class participants Small ; Caballero ; Mahtani Just over half had university degrees, mostly the younger participants. For clarity on the final spread of the sample by age cohort and gender see Table 1.

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The sample was split relatively equally by gender but was slightly skewed with regards to age because the oldest participants were hardest to recruit. Snowball sampling was used to help achieve the participation of hard to reach groups Bryman Sample by age and gender. CSV Display Table. A of empirical research studies on mixed-race and ethnic identity more generally highlight the ificance this stage of the life course has on identity development Tizard and Phoenix ; Alexander ; Song and Aspinall Many of the upcoming examples that participants draw on are rooted in their childhood and young adulthood.

These life-points are situated across different socio-political British contexts which allows us to trace how mixed-race has been experienced not only as a personal identity but as a social category through time.

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They would become subsumed in other debates to do with racial relations and difference that took priority during these periods. Tests for a new census ethnicity question in the s also revealed that Black mixed-race people themselves tended to align with a Black identity Office for National Statistics For the younger cohorts, the fact that horizontal hostility featured in their lives at all when growing up in the s and s raises some interesting questions. Whilst recognizing fluidity as a central and defining aspect of mixed-race identity, horizontal hostility adds to the discussion by highlighting some of the conditions under which mixed-race movement within and between Mixed black women sex is not easily negotiable.

The term horizontal hostility was chosen to describe the processes of boundary making that could place participants outside of the imagined Black space. It was a lengthy point of discussion across the majority of interviews. It is important to note that the respondents did not choose this term themselves to describe their memories of these interactions with Black friends, family or strangers.

Rather, many of the participants had difficulties in conceptualizing what the interactions meant. There seemed to be absence at the level of language and understanding of Black rejection, which horizontal hostility attempts to capture. As a teenager, in the mid-to-late s, he was a big fan of the American hip-hop group Public Enemy. The references in their lyrics to Black power, Malcolm X and the urban specific problems of the inner-city, had pedagogical value in his life and he considered himself to be an Afro-centric teenager Gilroy He displayed his love for the hip-hop group, and their messages, through his stylistic choices, which he felt could sometimes fall under suspicion by other Black peers because he was mixed-race.

He applies a traditional understanding of what constitutes racism — unequal relations of power — to articulate the meaning of the interaction. As noted, mixed populations in the Caribbean context have historically tended to experience varying degrees of advantage over their Black counterparts, in terms of how cultural, economic and social capital has been distributed through time Heuman ; Mohammed ; Tate Black heritage, therefore, has served to disadvantage populations, rather than offer up privileges.

His conceptualization almost functions as a re-working of the one-drop rule of hypodescent which perceived Black blood as a contaminant of Whiteness and thus sought to deate all people with any Black ancestry as Black Khanna Instead, his White blood is seen as the salient factor that determines, what he considers to be, unfavourable outcomes on his part. Below, Matthew 26 describes his experience of moving from Harborne to the more ethnically diverse and deprived area of Newtown, as a young teenager.

These findings were particularly surprising given that moments of horizontal hostility were infrequent and much less severe, compared to the systemic structural White racisms which presented multiple disadvantages in their lives.

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Rather, these perceptions speak to the normalization of White racism in Black mixed-race lives. The ubiquitous nature of Whiteness and its quiet pervasiveness, can Mixed black women sex it less perceivable and allow it to go unnamed Dyer Women tended to experience horizontal hostility in its most acute forms and more frequently throughout the life course.

Although there were countless examples of strong, loving and healthy relationships with Black women, over half of the women reported experiencing varying degrees of tension throughout their lives. Female respondents born in the s and s described the most extreme examples of horizontal hostility, which are likely to be a generational effect of coming of age in the tense racial climate of s Britain Fryer Isabelle 49 recalled a memory of being spat at by Black girls on her walk to secondary school.

Audrey frequented shebeens and blues parties across the city, like other similarly aged participants. These und establishments and private house parties were a direct response to racist policies in public clubs and pubs that excluded Black people and Black music. Nevertheless, within the confines of these racialized spaces, other ificant micro-politics related to colour, race and gender could sometimes arise and create precarious positions for mixed-race subjects.

The Black girls used to give us a terrible time. They still like look down their nose. Horizontal hostility appeared to have more transformative effects on self-perceptions for men in comparison to women. This is likely due to the fact that the men were more likely to both self-identify and be identified by others as Black at points throughout their lives, echoing findings from existing literature Long and Joseph-Salisbury ; Sims and Joseph-Salisbury It was also clear that they wanted, and expectedtheir claim to a Black identity to be accepted, especially during their youth.

This seemed particularly true for participants like Malcolm 42 below, who perceived his coming of age experiences as distinct from his younger counterparts.

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Joseph-Salisbury describes how these divisions can sometimes be formed along skin tone in Black male peer groups, and finds that darker skin can often emerge as a form of capital. Divisions along colour are playfully acknowledged through verbal sparring with his friends and the underlying tensions within the banter are clear. So, it could be about anything […] if your trainers were bruk down, from if […] your dad slapped up your mom, how many years ago. Horizontal hostility gives critical insight into mixed-race self-perceptions and building on this, it also indicates what might inform decisions about expressed ethnic identities and allegiances throughout the life course.

Even when experienced through banter, it evidently, can easily slip over into forms of rejection. For many participants, this had a detrimental effect on feelings of belonging. Subsequent to these encounters, participants could feel that their membership in the Black community was conditional which left them in a state of uncertainty. In some cases, these anxieties even had negative impacts on their relationships with Black peers, especially during their coming of age years.

For others, like Chris 40 below, an experience of horizontal hostility during a trip to Handsworth Carnival in the late s, urged him to reconsider his position within a collective Black ethnic group identity. And I remember sitting there at the time thinking yooo, is this geezer for real? This paper brings horizontal hostility into the conceptual frameworks of Critical Mixed Race Studies in order to develop a more nuanced understanding of mixed-race subjectivity.

The experiences of horizontal hostility, and the reactions to it, differed along lines of gender and across social generations. These findings al the continued need for intersectional, historical analyses of mixed-race identities that critically explore Mixed black women sex mixed-race subjects locate themselves in the social worlds they inhabit and how this can impact on their future identity choices. Building on the literature that shows how White hegemonic discourses of race emerge as an oppressive force in the lives of Black mixed-race populations, horizontal hostility identifies the complex ways that binary discourses of race are, at times, made to work by Black counterparts.

Although language has been developed to describe the unique prejudice that mixed-race people might experience because they are perceived as unable to fit neatly into discrete ethnic and racialthere is less exploration of how the implications of such prejudice might vary dependent on who it is that is expressing these views. Horizontal hostility identifies this absence by tracing how these types of prejudice, when expressed by Black counterparts, can prompt Black mixed-race people to feel ostensibly and momentarily inferior but most importantly, position them as inauthentic Black people.

Unlike everyday experiences of White racisms which many participants were able to comprehend, horizontal hostility emerges as a phenomenon that is not as easily described or knowable. It tended to be articulated as epiphanies in their lives, unlike White structural racisms which most were able to recognize and go on to find methods to negotiate relatively early on.

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However, many participants lacked the ability to make sense of and reconcile Black rejection.

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